Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General
Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 9
The States Parties to the present Protocol,
Considering that in order further to achieve the purposes of the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights (hereinafter referred to as the Covenant) and the implementation of
its provisions it would be appropriate to enable the Human Rights Committee set up in part IV
of the Covenant (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) to receive and consider, as
provided in the present Protocol, communications from individuals claiming to be victims of
violations of any of the rights set forth in the Covenant. Have agreed as follows:
A State Party to the Covenant that becomes a Party to the present Protocol recognizes the
competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals
subject to its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by that State Party of any of
the rights set forth in the Covenant. No communication shall be received by the Committee if
it concerns a State Party to the Covenant which is not a Party to the present Protocol.
Subject to the provisions of article 1, individuals who claim that any of their rights enumerated
in the Covenant have been violated and who have exhausted all available domestic remedies
may submit a written communication to the Committee for consideration.
The Committee shall consider inadmissible any communication under the present Protocol
which is anonymous, or which it considers to be an abuse of the right of submission of such
communications or to be incompatible with the provisions of the Covenant.
1. Subject to the provisions of article 3, the Committee shall bring any communications
submitted to it under the present Protocol to the attention of the State Party to the present
Protocol alleged to be violating any provision of the Covenant.
2. Within six months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee written explanations
or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been taken by that
1. The Committee shall consider communications received under the present Protocol in the
light of all written information made available to it by the individual and by the State Party
2. The Committee shall not consider any communication from an individual unless it has
(a) The same matter is not being examined under another procedure of international
investigation or settlement;
(b) The individual has exhausted all available domestic remedies. This shall not be the rule
where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged.
3. The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under the
present Protocol. 4. The Committee shall forward its views to the State Party concerned and to
The Committee shall include in its annual report under article 45 of the Covenant a summary
of its activities under the present Protocol.
Pending the achievement of the objectives of resolution 1514(XV) adopted by the General
Assembly of the United Nations on 14 December 1960 concerning the Declaration on the
Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, the provisions of the present
Protocol shall in no way limit the right of petition granted to these peoples by the Charter of
the United Nations and other international conventions and instruments under the United
Nations and its specialized agencies.
1. The present Protocol is open for signature by any State which has signed the Covenant.
2. The present Protocol is subject to ratification by any State which has ratified or acceded to
the Covenant. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
3. The present Protocol shall be open to accession by any State which has ratified or acceded
to the Covenant.
4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-
General of the United Nations.
5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed the
present Protocol or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.
1. Subject to the entry into force of the Covenant, the present Protocol shall enter into force
three months after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of
the tenth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
2. For each State ratifying the present Protocol or acceding to it after the deposit of the tenth
instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Protocol shall enter into force
three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of
The provisions of the present Protocol shall extend to all parts of federal States without any
limitations or exceptions.
1. Any State Party to the present Protocol may propose an amendment and file it with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate
any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Protocol with a request that
they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of
considering and voting upon the proposal. In the event that at least one third of the States
Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under
the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States
Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the
United Nations for approval.
2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly
of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the
present Protocol in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which
have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present
Protocol and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.
1. Any State Party may denounce the present Protocol at any time by written notification
addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation shall take effect three
months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
2. Denunciation shall be without prejudice to the continued application of the provisions of the
present Protocol to any communication submitted under article 2 before the effective date of
Irrespective of the notifications made under article 8, paragraph 5, of the present Protocol, the
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in article 48,
paragraph I, of the Covenant of the following particulars:
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 8;
(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Protocol under article 9 and the date of the
entry into force of any amendments under article 11;
(c) Denunciations under article 12.
1. The present Protocol, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are
equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present
Protocol to all States referred to in article 48 of the Covenant.